New System

Why is it important for everyone in business organizations to have a basic understanding of the systems development process? Would your response change if the organization is licensing a system rather than developing their own from scratch?

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All individuals within business organizations operate as end users. In particular, being end users of the system, the hold with them business information and knowledge that the information system personnel require in order to cultivate and advance all of the elements of the design of the information system. Taking this into consideration, it is imperative for every individual within business organizations to have a basic understanding of the system’s development process as their input is fundamental to the design of an efficacious information system (Rainer et al., 2013). In the case that the organization is licensing a system instead of cultivating one right from the start, my response would change. This is for the reason that with respect to licensing, not all individuals within the organization will be necessitated to give input.


Open Source Software

You are the CIO of your company, and you have to develop an application of strategic importance to your firm. What are the advantages and disadvantages of ? Do you think that this is a viable option for your company? Comment by babyliza: Not answered


One of the advantages of open source software is that it is cost-effective. Open source software is relatively cheaper than products commercially marketed as they are created to provide access to any individual. In addition, they can be beneficial in augmenting the life of old hardware and diminishing the constant need for replacement. Another advantage is that open source software are reliable. This is because for starters they are developed by fundamentally skillful and experienced specialists that . In addition, they are developed by numerous individuals, which implies that there are several parties that can monitor for any problems such as bugs and fix them. A third advantage encompasses flexibility. This is because taking into account that one is not affixed to a proprietary product, then there really is no need to stick to a particular IT architecture that might necessitate one to constantly upgrade both hardware and software (ConnectUS, 2016).


At the same time, open source software do have their downsides. One of the major disadvantages is that they are susceptible to malicious users. This is because several individuals can gain access to the source code and not all individuals might have good intent or will. Secondly, even though they are relatively cheaper, open source software may not be user friendly in comparison to the commercially marketed products. Third of all, they do not have comprehensive support in the sense that in the event that a program does have issues, there is no individual that can be deemed accountable (ConnectUS, 2016).


Freedom of Speech

In 2008, the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA) obtained a temporary restraining order barring three Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) students from publicly displaying what they claimed to be a way to get “free subway rides for life.” Specifically, the 10-day injunction prohibited the students from revealing vulnerabilities of the MBTA’s fare card. The students were scheduled to present their findings in Las Vegas at the DEFCON computer hacking conference. Were the students’ actions legal? Were their actions ethical? Discuss your answer from the students’ perspective then from the perspective of the MBTA.


i. From the perspectives of the MBTA


The actions of the student were not legal. This is for the reason that right from the get go, it is imperative to note that any kind of hacking activity is unethical and illegal. This is deemed that way because by exposing the susceptibilities in the fare card, the students were in some kind of way extorting the company’s income, which in the long-run would be significantly detrimental to MBTA’s system in general. Therefore, from this perspective, it is unethical and illegal.


ii. From the perspective of the students


From the perspective of the students, their actions are still deemed legal. At the same time, in terms of morality, the students consider their actions as ethical. This is because from their standpoint, by exposing such vulnerabilities, they could potentially be of great help to individuals that do not have the ability to afford such a fare card. It can also be considered legal because this was basically a study that they had conducted within their studies at MIT. However, the most ideal and ethical action for the students would be to contact the company regarding such perceived vulnerabilities (Brey, 2007).


Security Consultants

Frank Abagnale, the criminal played by Leonardo DiCaprio in the motion picture “Catch Me If You Can,” ended up in prison. After he left prison, however, he worked as a consultant to many companies on matters of fraud


(a) Why do these companies hire the perpetrators (if caught) as consultants? Is this a good idea?


The fundamental reason why the companies employ the perpetrators as consultants is simply because they are deemed as fitting advisors. For instance, in this case, Frank Abagnale as an ex-felon that had been incarcerated for fraud, he could be deemed as a proper and fitting consultant and advisor for the companies seeking on finding more ways on how to detect any fraud activities and violations. Yes, this can be considered as a good idea as Frank was by all means a professional in his violations that made it seem very legal. This implies that the company would profit from his capacity to instantaneously detect any kind of fraud being undertaken within the organization’s confines. However, it is imperative to note that this would be at risk of the “consultant” teaming up with the fraudsters or undertaking more fraud. This means the company has to take measures of security in this regard (Whitman and Mattord, 2010).


(b) You are the CEO of a company. Discuss the ethical implications of hiring Frank Abagnale as a consultant


Being the CEO of a company, hiring Frank Abagnale can be considered as an ethical act. The ethical implication is that being an ex-felon, these individuals barely get a good opportunity to utilize their skills or get good work once they are released. Therefore, this can be perceived as a good opportunity granted by the company for Frank Abagnale to turn his life around for the better with work opportunity. Moreover, as an individual with substantial information and knowledge regarding fraud, he would be significantly beneficial to the company’s security department (Whitman and Mattord, 2010).


Information Security

Why should managers make information security a prime concern?


Information security should be made a key area of concern by managers. To begin with, information security takes into account all of the practices and policies that are intended and purposed to safeguard the information as well as information system of an entity from any kind of unauthorized access, use, change, or damage. This implies that without being considered of key concern, organizational information can be disclosed easily and also the information system destroyed as well. More so, with the advancement in technology, the organization may be using technology that may be obsolete, which can render the company at risk of such violations (Rainer et al., 2013).



Why are federal authorities so worried about SCADA attacks?


Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) are employed in the monitoring and controlling of critical installations in manufacturing and industrial facilities. The reason why the federal authorities are concerned about SCADA attacks is that they can prospectively have very severe consequences. In recent periods, there has been an increase in cyber-attacks across the globe, which has prompted the need for increasing security and placing measures in place to curb such risks. A great worry is that Stuxnet was a virus that was employed to harm the vital infrastructures of foreign governments (Infosec Institute, 2016). Stuxnet is understood to have been intended to damage uranium enhancement centrifuges at the Iran’s Natanz nuclear plant. Taking into account that the prevailing SCADA systems are old, they can be easily hacked into and a great deal of damage done (ePanorama, 2011).



Brey, P. (2007). Ethical aspects of information security and privacy. In Security, privacy, and trust in modern data management (pp. 21-36). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.


ConnectUS. (2016).7 Main Advantages and Disadvantages of Open Source Software. Retrieved from:


ePanorama. (2011). SCADA systems security issues. Retrieved from:


Infosec Institute. (2016). SCADA & Security of Critical Infrastructures. Retrieved from:


Rainer, R. K., Cegielski, C. G., Splettstoesser-Hogeterp, I., & Sanchez-Rodriguez, C. (2013). Introduction to information systems: Supporting and transforming business. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.


Whitman, M. E., & Mattord, H. J. (2010). Readings & Cases in Information Security: Law & Ethics. Nelson Education.