Renewable Chemical Feedstocks
The fossil fuels are not renewable and in the near future will run out. Of the eighty thousand or more of chemicals on which all industries depend and which is the main domain of the chemical industry will face severe setbacks as a great percentage of the chemicals are derived from fossil fuel oil extraction processes and residues. The feedstocks that are provided by the petroleum industry will vanish. Therefore it is an absolute necessity that an alternate feedstock is found for these chemical industries and also that the new feedstock falls with the line and concept of green chemistry. In other words the redesign of the chemical industry will have to be done with absolute care of the environment and technologies that are friendly to the earth. There are partial successes but there is a lot of research needed to create the new feedstock.
The industries all over the world are accused of contributing to the environmental deterioration. The chemical industry is blamed more. The chemical industry today is almost entirely dependent on fossil feedstock derivatives, but we have to remember that even before petroleum was discovered the compounds that are now manufactured form fossil feedstock was manufactured form other natural elements. The difference in manufacture today is in immense proportions as compared to earlier times. Thus we have to note that the use of natural derivatives in chemistry is not new. However the use of oil and the development of technology prior to the Second World War began a new way of using fossil fuel derivatives in the industry. The chemical industry’s growth was triggered by the Second World War and the later periods the industrial growth was due to the chemicals. Fossil oils provided a substitute for coal provided the chemical industry with abundant raw material, and resulted in the rise of chemicals, synthetic fibers, thermoplastics and fertilizers. (Aftalion, 1991, p. 319)
Today the chemical industry is mostly dependent on the fossil feedstock which is a non-replenishing resource that is expected to dry up in the very near future. If the stocks fail to flow then the entire industry and many other industries that primarily depend on chemicals will also fold up. The chief economic concern is therefore finding a way so that the chemical industry has sustainable alternate feedstock. Secondly exploring such options also may throw up interesting new technology and processes and even new chemicals that are safer for humans and the environment. (Blackburn, 1987, p. 12)
If we acknowledge that the chemical industry depends on the fossil fuel for feedstock and the fossil fuel is fast depleting. Processes that are settled and used for manufacturing chemicals using fossil fuel will be the worst hit when the fuel base runs out. Bringing the depletion and reading it together with a host of problems that are created for the earth in using fossil fuel, the time has come to find alternate sources to feed the energy requirement and also derive the chemicals and substances from other sources other than fossil oils. This requirement is imperative because of the need for chemicals that is spiraling on one hand and the denouncement of chemical processes that cause environmental hazards and global warming. (Blackburn, 1987, p. 12)
The green chemical industry is here to stay and in view of all this solving the problem of finding a green chemical feedstock has become imperative. This was realized by the world community decades ago and the ponderings over the issue led the U.S. government which in 2006 was able to through the U.S. National Research Council identified Renewable Chemical Feedstocks as one of the main challenges for a sustainable chemical industry in the light of declining availability of fossil fuels over the next 100 years. Using a few suitable examples, discuss the lifecycle challenges presented by switching from fossil to biomass derived chemical feedstocks. The actual reason that there was interest in alternate fuel could be attributed to events that occurred far back in the 1970s. (Blackburn, 1987, p. 17)
The market conditions of petroleum caused concern and the interest in the alternate fuel and stock came as a result of the changes and the volatility of the oil market in 1973. This brought the question of energy and petroleum-based products into sharp contrast. This focus essentially cantered on energy matters and conventional energy supplies. As the costs of oil and gas declined the issue was left to rest and the question became academic. In the energy sector at least alternate energy is still considered a supply oriented market while other groups insist on increasing energy from other sours other than oil. If the question on alternate energy could be answered in the affirmative then the chemical stocks from petroleum-based production could continue for some more time if the oil is not used for energy purposes as it is now. The economic question then is at what costs this could be achieved. (Blackburn, 1987, p. 17)
This being a global concern debates and research were initiated which resulted in the focus of this issue in the Rio de Janeiro ‘United Nations Conference on Environment and Development — UNCED’, during June 1992, and was also discussed in the Johannesburg ‘World Summit on Sustainable Development’ during August 2002, which resulted in an universal agenda that was adopted by 170 countries in seeking solutions to the challenges of the century on account of depleted resources that could trigger problems in all sectors of human life. Thus the agenda was to find ‘environmentally’ good as well as ‘sustainable’ usage of ‘natural resources’ which could be ‘renewable’. This program has given rise to many experiments all over the world. (Bozell; Patel, 2004, p. 2)
One such arena is chemistry and the use for example of fats and oils as renewable feedstock. This becomes important in the production of base chemicals and many products are manufactured from the base chemicals, it is widely accepted that the better method of production of the base chemicals is very important for the sustainability of the chemical industry. Thus for the chemical industry the new processes based on renewable feedstock are significant. Joseph J. Bozell, Martin K. Patel show that back in 1995 energy consumption in Germany was “about 14 exajoule. The chemical industry used 1.7 exajoule, about 12% of the total and 45% of the energy consumed in all manufacturing processes.” (Bozell; Patel, 2004, p. 2) Another factor for consideration is that the petrochemical base chemicals tend to have higher gross energy requirement. Gross energy could be described as the sum of process energy and feedstock energy and as opposed to this the base chemicals made out of biomass contain no feedstock energy. (Bozell; Patel, 2004, p. 2)
The U.S. National Research Council came with the finding that one reason why alternate sources are being investigated is because the demand for fossil fuels was limited earlier. With the global expansion the fuel requirement and fossil fuel feedstock demand has hiked considerably which will eventually cause its depletion. Environmental effects including global warming is also being felt. Rachel Carson’s book the “silent spring” caused the public to take notice of the effects of chemicals and use of fossil fuel on the environment. These became the cause for the drive for alternate fuels. (National Research Council (U.S.), 2005, p. 46)
What ever be the cause today the chemical industry is forced to consider the alternate options. Over 80,000 chemicals are used in the United States, and constitute a $460 billion industry that is vital to the national economy. However the depletion of fossil energy sources has made its sustainability a question mark. Thus any research needs to move towards chemical products, processes, and systems that will help create sustainability. The chemical industry itself is a feedstock industry for modern industries and therefore, the chemical industry has to have a new paradigm of sustainability which requires the advancement the science and technology to support using alternate sources of inputs to bring about a foundation for sustainability. (Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST), 2005, p. 10)
The Economic Concerns
No new technology could be adapted and used unless there is firstly a commercial viability and secondly an economic means of production. The chemical industry has established itself in the last century with the production and distribution process systems in order. Creating an alternate feedstock will necessarily has to begin by addressing and solving questions of the economic impact and cost of such a diversification. If the alternate feedstock could provide a near equal market and cost ratios without requiring large investments, the market and investors will invest in the process. The business therefore views the proposition from the economic angle and this has to be satisfactory first. Thus the important consideration from the standpoint of business is the high prices for petroleum and natural gas. This makes the U.S. chemical industry attempt creating alternative feedstock for the production of commodity chemicals. (McFarlane, 2006)
The condition underlying this principle therefore is that the cost of the alternate feed stock and its extraction must not be too costly and the change to the new method must not therefore also involve additional huge investment. The feedstocks that are considered include going back on coal Gasification, and coal liquefaction, stranded natural gas and oil which was heavy and available from the ‘oil shale’ or ‘tar sands’, and biomass. Because of its eco friendly nature and sustainability biomass is to be considered as the better alternative. There are some technical barriers that have to be overcome in using biomass as alternate feedstock. Governments are now considering the aspects of power generation and production of transportation fuels. The know-how for the chemical industry is yet to be developed fully and this can be using feedstock alternatives to petroleum and using sustainable manufacturing practices. (McFarlane, 2006)
It is also argued that the resources and environmental pressures spring from the throughput of materials in the economy. That is determined by total output. Now total output could be considered again in the denomination of population and per capita output, and these two are according to Ronald G. Ridker the variables of environmental pressures. The energy situation is worse than that for non-fuel minerals because of the volatility of prices and the technological changes. Thus the nature of a change will be determined by the elasticities and domestic prices. The demand, import and other economic activities will change the way the existing resources and reserves of fossil fuel are used and the methods of using alternate resources. With regard to biomass and other alternate feedstock we can predict that the existing reserves are defined in terms of the total resources that are known, and we could therefore create the scenario where future reserves likely to be added to reserves in the next fifty years, and the total resources are the sum of these two categories. (Ridker; Watson, 1980, p. 15)
The current advancement in this sphere is limited. And there could be consequences for the agricultural markets if the feedstock is grown according to Hyunok Lee et al. There could be ramifications that are legal too, like the possible ethanol production, conflicting with that of the ‘Clean Air Act’, enhances the usage of ‘corn’ and gluten feed, an ethanol co-product in the U.S. Industrial uses it is argued are the potential source of additional demand. The advantage would be that bio-dependent natural resources have suitable ‘environmental’ elements, in comparison with alternatives which are ‘petroleum’ dependent. (Lee, et al., 1994, p. 22)
James H. Clark argues that in the fag end of the 20th century chemical needs were met to a greater degree with renewable feedstocks. But later the transition to non-renewables was ushered in. Today chemical feedstock supply is dominated by non-renewable carbon while it could be argued that there is a vast amount of carbon in the biosphere which if used could supply the carbon needs of the earth. The other sources like corn, paper pulp and other agricultural commodities therefore are better natural feedstock that are renewable and are also environment friendly. (Clark; Macquarrie, 2002, p. 305)
This has given rise to the term ‘Green Chemistry and is defined by Robert J. Lempert et al. As having its origins from the ‘U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA’, which designated ‘centers’ or ‘programs’ within several universities, under the title of the ‘Green Chemistry Institute’, which was instituted with the collaboration of organizations and scientists with ‘American Chemical Society’. The class of ‘NGETs’ — “Next Generation Environmental Technologies” is the study of the arena of ‘green chemistry’ which is emerging nowadays in the field of science. ‘Green chemistry’ thus is a discipline which is based on ‘chemical processes’ design and products which is less harmful to the environment. (What Are Next Generation Environmental Technologies?, n. d.)
The technology that is based on the principle of green chemistry research is deemed as an NGET, this is vital because most environmental damage is being done by chemicals the concept of green chemistry becomes relevant. ‘Green chemistry’ might provide an important element of all of the NGETs, since several problems of the environment result due to ‘chemicals’ as well as their impacts on the ‘society’. Bio-based processes have to be designed to create renewable feedstocks or biomass in conventional chemical processes. Feedstocks may be petrochemical based and also from the other natural sources. Enzymes and the chemical reaction they catalyze are important in using biomass for chemical derivatives. (What Are Next Generation Environmental Technologies?, n. d.)
The million dollar question however is will the alternatives be sustainable?
Objectives and Sustainability
According to James H. Clark and Duncan J. Macquarrie, the concept of sustainable development is a component of all projects that are aimed at changing social, economic and environmental usages. These three are connected forces in the world. The role of chemistry as a science and industry touches all the three spheres. The chemical industry that has evolved in a scientific tradition is blamed for deterioration of the environment. Thus the scientists in chemistry are faced with the necessity of coming up with alternates for those processes that are either considered harmful or s is the case with fossil fuels, getting scarce day by day. (Clark; Macquarrie, 2002. p. 318)
One method that scientists adopt is to reduce the intensity of chemical processes which answers the questions of protecting the environment. The other option of finding alternate supplies of depleting resources is more complex and multiple ways are possible like recycling, and in some cases increasing durability that reduces consumption, and so on. Faced with a future where petroleum-based chemicals are going to scarce, the industries that depend on the chemicals are in imperative need to find alternate resources that not only perform in the same capacity but also serves the environment question in a positive way. (Clark; Macquarrie, 2002. p. 320) Then what are the current availability and future possibilities?
Bio Mass Possibilities:
The problem with biomass is that there must be a basic cultivation or agricultural operation which means diverting land resources from conventional agriculture to producing the necessary feedstock. Alternately existing bio feedstocks could be used for alternate purposes. In either case there is a need to redefine activities in multiple sectors. The change in agrarian sector and the use of land can be changed only if it is possible to show that changing the crop or pattern could be as beneficial as conventional crops. Biomass could also be recovered from industrial, agricultural and even human and city wastes. All these require the placing of a large number of systems that cater to one unit of the whole operation. The condition is that each unit has to be viable and profitable. Thus there must be changes in the national industrial and even in the social level for this to be practical. (Bozell, 2008, p. 642)
Models already exist for switching to biomass. For example Joseph J. Bozell in discussing the method of converting renewable carbon to chemicals says that the industry is experiencing a huge increase in both research and commercial interest. One possible solution is to construct a model of refineries in the same manner as the fossil fuel refinery and in fact the fossil fuel refineries could be tweaked to accommodate biomass input. This type of refinery is defined as the bio-refinery is now a recognized approach for transforming renewable raw materials into separate bio-based process. Successful bio-refinery operations could thus have two results, one being the replacement of nonrenewable raw materials sources like coal and the second a new economic expansion with a thrust and economic incentive to create robust bio refining industry. This can be simultaneous effects if the fuel and chemical industry requirement are integrated within a single operation. (Bozell, 2008, p. 644)
Joseph J. Bozell says further that the creation of such a refinery is not yet feasible on account of the lack of technology, which would otherwise facilitate the conversion of renewable carbon sources into useful marketplace chemicals. The raw materials would then be renewable. The bio-refinery in concept is similar to a petrochemical refinery, and contains three primary process operations that can be categorized as the raw material supply, converting the raw materials into refined components and bye products and delivery. Conceptually an Integration of fuel and chemical production within a single bio refinery operation gives the maximum return on investment. The process is similar to the process of ethanol. The byproducts are renewable carbon from biomass waste, and also source of aromatic chemicals. (Bozell, 2008, p. 645)
Therefore it becomes necessary to consider the biomass in detail. The term is defined by the ‘UCS Fact sheet’ as the energy derived from the sun. ‘Biomass’ is an element of ‘renewable energy’ since the energy it emerges from sun. Further, the processes involve a cycle in which by photosynthesis, ‘plants’ take the energy of the sun. This results in ‘carbohydrates’ and ‘compounds’ of complexity including oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. On burning the above compounds become carbon dioxide and water releasing the energy they contain. Thus a biomass stores energy in the same way as a battery and is a ‘natural battery’ for the purpose of storage of ‘solar energy’. Biomass functions thus could be growing plants for energy needs and using residues from plants for other chemical derivatives. Thus grass, native flora and trees could be the bio-mass required as input for energy and other chemical needs. At the moment crops such as corn tend to be used for energy purposes at present. Corn currently provides most of the liquid fuel from biomass in the United States. Other oil plants like sunflowers as well as soybeans form oil, which could be made use of to produce fuels. Biomass residues can be used for energy. Even wastes in cities such as sewage as well as garbage are considered an important element for producing ‘biomass energy’. (Larson; Wentworth, 2006)
The importance of converting and creating energy is paramount to any industry including the chemical industry. Several techniques of non-combustion are accessible for making energy from biomass. Further while “bacteria break down biomass, methane and carbon dioxide are produced. One persistent myth about biomass is that it takes more energy to produce fuels from biomass than the fuels themselves contain. In the future, to make a truly sustainable biomass energy system, we would have to replace fossil fuels with biomass or other renewable fuels to plant and harvest the crops.” (Larson; Wentworth, 2006) Biomass energy brings numerous environmental benefits by less pollution, and even improving wildlife habitat. (Larson; Wentworth, 2006)
We could therefore conclude that there is a need for finding alternate feedstocks that could measure up to the notion of a green chemical industry, and which is presumed to only green chemical feedstock. What ever be the cause today the chemical industry is forced to consider the alternate options. The bio refinery operation for example requires biomass that could be cultivated and identified not only to solve the energy issue but also provide residues that could be of use to the chemical industry. The environmental concerns and the depleting fuel reserves and fossil fuel all make it imperative that technology be adapted to find biomass input for chemical industry. There have been numerous attempts at this and some suggestions and ventures have brought to light the viability of a green feedstock.
One way of using the biomass is considering catalysis according to James H. Clark and Duncan J. Macquarrie. Catalysis is defined as the use of organisms to break down compounds to lesser chemicals. This is a natural result that dos not require extensive machinery. Thus Catalysis is a way of obtaining green chemicals. The reason is that it is efficient in producing chemicals through synthetically efficient manufacture. Thus in future a green chemical industry will have to change to renewable feedstock and in modern days the symbiosis between biocatalysts and renewable feedstocks like carbohydrates for example is causing the rapid expansion of and discovery of many organisms capable of converting sugars to a wide array of products. Renewable feeds especially biomass as chemical feed stock thus takes on a wider array of possibilities. (Clark; Macquarrie, 2002, p. 353)
B.O. Palsson et al. In considering the technology as well as raw materials that prevail for U.S. chemical industry in the class of fermentation products “isopropanol, ethanol, 2, 3-butanediol and n-butanol” suggest that for such extracts the best method would “dehydration of the alcohols and diols to olefin, without “disrupting the prevailing downtrends of the industry from that of the olefins.” (Palsson, et al., 1981, p. 514) This substitution is aimed at providing renewable feedstocks and without much deviation in the production process. This will in course of time decrease dependence on fossil source, and replace it with organic material. The one problem that is encountered with this proposal is that the cost of the biomass feed stock would be more. The prices need to be minimized. “Further with that of the optimum level, their large amount of use would only prevail at about 20-40% of their chemical prices which are estimated” (Palsson, et al., 1981, p. 514)
Many other scientists narrow their research to smaller fragments of the industry. Thus there will be multiple technologies for extraction based on the required chemicals. Some chemicals could be extracted from more than one process. The use of some substances like coal was examined in detail and interesting outcomes are on record. For example McFarlane examined the “usage of coal for generation of syngas and fuel liquids through Fischer-Tropsch process.” (McFarlane, 2006) According to him “coal gasifiers” are being run in the U.S., and new pilot “gasification plants are being built for power production using clean coal technology.” (McFarlane, 2006) Thus the new process will be significant in electricity production and chemical manufacture. Thus technology has to be developed for “syngas storage and advanced control systems to switch from one activity to another.” (McFarlane, 2006) Other coal-based technologies that could be considered are gas-to-liquid plants and the “Syngas to fuels is being done by Sasol in South Africa, and China has invested in coal liquefaction to fuels.” (McFarlane, 2006)
The gasification process could be used to manufacture chemicals from biomass or other techniques like pyrolysis, and fermentation could be used in special bio refineries. One example is the “fermentation of sugar from corn and sugarcane to derive oxygenated organics” and the process of producing “biodiesel, might also be used in bulk chemical manufacture” like the manufactures of glycerin. (McFarlane, 2006) Researches are under way and the future biomass utilization could be in “fermentation of sugars, decomposition of cellulose, “biomass gasification separation of lignin and other plant components, high temperature pyrolysis, and bio-refining of wood and waste materials.” (McFarlane, 2006) Some problems could arise with the concerns of removing impurities and variabilities of feedstock composition, poor supply and so on. (McFarlane, 2006)
Bio-based manufacturing using bio-catalysis, biocatalyst systems are a part of green chemistry. Scientists and administrators are working to overcome the technical and economic barriers that offer hurdles to commercialization of bio-based processes, which are proper substitutes in many industries that use chemicals lie pulp paper, fine chemicals, compounds, aromatics, and of course the pharmaceutical industry. Commercializing bio-based processes for energy, metals, mining, and other chemical industries would also pave the way for a larger feedstock in future. (Lempert, et al. 2003, p. A-32)
With examples discussing the lifecycle challenges presented by switching from fossil to biomass derived chemical feedstocks
The two decades i.e. from 2005 to 2025 of the sustained use of fossil fuels mainly oil as the chief source of energy and chemical feed-stocks in which managing carbon, minimizing the acute use of energy resources, and awareness efforts to foster contemplation regarding sustainability will be crucial. From the year 2025 till 2105 i.e. The next twenty to hundred years which will witness the phasing out of fossil fuel and where the capability to undertake green chemistry and engineering and getting access to alternative sources of fuel that are renewable and feed-stocks will be very important. These will be built on the basic understanding of the entire life cycle influences and toxicology of chemicals. A graphic showing the present situation and the envisaged vision is stated in Exhibit — I. (National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry, 2005, p. 80)
In order to meet the energy demands in the aftermath of gradual phasing out of fossil fuels, among the viable option envisaged is hydrogen production from biomass in order to attain the objective of near-hydrogen energy systems. While evaluating the feasibility of the switch routes, each ought to be placed in the perspective of supply of right feedstocks and deployment situations that correspond to hydrogen in the local markets. Scope for production is of specific interest for near-term deployment as multiple products enhance the economics. The appropriate feedstock qualities happen to be “cost, distribution, mass, and physical and chemical” features. But biomass feedstock fluctuates immensely in composition as well as form. The moisture as well as energy content constitute the principal parameters for assessment of biomass and also result in several engineering aspects which must be taken care of. As biomass has a low density, the costs of transportation for feedstock as well as hydrogen must be balanced with that of the savings from utilizing economies of scale. It is important to note that biomass possess the inherent potential so as to hasten the understanding of hydrogen as the leading fuel in the years to come. As biomass is renewable and uses up atmospheric carbon dioxide at the time of growth, it can release smaller carbon dioxide content as compared to fossil fuels. But there are major challenges in obtaining hydrogen from biomass. No completed technology demonstrations are available for the present. The hydrogen output is low from biomass which is nearly 6% compared to methane which gives a hydrogen output of 25%. Besides the energy content is also low because it has a high oxygen content which is 40%. As more than half of the hydrogen from biomass is obtained from “spitting water in the steam reforming reaction,” the energy portion of the feedstock constitutes an intrinsic drawback of the process. (Milne; Elam; Evans, 2001)
A lot remains to be known in the manner in which chemistry and its influence on the worldwide systems is contemplated. There is an urgency to comprehend the long-term effects of chemicals in the environment like diligence, bioaccumulation, the potential for global warming, or depletion in the ozone level. This entails getting a devoted appreciation of the metabolism of chemical products unraveling their industrial ecology right from the extraction of raw materials and manufacturing of products, to their application and management of any resulting wastes. Analytical tools relating to life cycle are particularly required in order to compare the net environmental influence of product produced from different processing routes and under varied operating conditions across the full life cycle. This constitutes an additional area which is being investigated, but will continue to contribute significantly within the chemical industry in the longer term when humanity is confronted with new realities due to the gradual phasing out of fossil fuels and green chemistry and engineering practices become the new fuel of the future. (National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry, 2005, p. 82)
Things yet to be done:
Much of the discussions revolved around existing methods and some new innovations. Yet there is a great deal of distance to travel before the chemical industry can have an alternate and complete stock feed from non-fossil sources. Thus the challenge is to classify the processes and the stock to be used for the thousands of chemicals and the ways of achieving this without causing harm to the environment and at the same time making the new process sustainable. Thus the chemical transformations utilizing green and sustainable chemistry and engineering requires research into the ways of transforming and deriving the same chemical from a varied base. Thus there must be a thrust to “Identify appropriate solvents, control thermal conditions, and purify, recover, and formulate products that prevent waste and that are environmentally benign, economically viable, and generally support a better societal quality of life.” (Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005, p. 6)
The development of a life cycle tool that could compare the economic and environmental effect of the new technology is vital. Another consideration for the chemical industry is finding quantity and quality of data to evaluate life cycle metrics. The methodology of life cycle analysis, the influence of the life cycle inventory is not yet in place. (Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005, p. 6) The aim must be in transforming feedstock which is bio-based and renewable into impurities free products which are also viable on economic grounds. (Graziani; Fornasiero, 2007, p. 16)
All through the years the most successful industry was the chemical industry which still is at the apex. It has been blamed for environmental problems and is threatened by the loss of its feedstock. Thus chemists are in dire need of finding alternate stock feeds and processes that will be economically viable, and has renewable resources or feedstock. This also is a new venture into the unknown, and reusing the knowledge of established processes in a new way. Current development is stalled both on account of the technical barriers that have to be overcome and the future reserves that need to be created for renewable feedstocks and altered chemical processes. The chemical industry is also honored with the task of finding the alternate sources of energy once the fossil fuel gives out.
Energy production is paramount for the chemical industry because in production of energy some of the costs of its feed stock are reduced and it has alternate uses. The cycle of production will thus be complete when the feedstock is primarily used for generating energy. The advantage of bio- feed stock is chiefly that it is less harmful to the environment. In any case the industry has to go ahead with creating a new model for extracting chemicals from alternate feedstocks because the fossil fuel will not lost much longer and is not renewable. To therefore continue without depending on fossil feedstock must be the new goal and it is imperative to achieve the goal. Scientists and administrators are working all over the world to bring about the commercialization of bio-based processes, and create a renewable larger feedstock in future.
Exhibit — I
The present situation and the envisaged vision
National Research Council (U.S.), Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry. 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs- A Workshop Report. National Academies Press. p. 81.
Aftalion, Fred. 1991. A History of the International Chemical Industry. Benfey University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia.
Blackburn, John O. 1987. The Renewable Energy Alternative: How the United States and the World Can Prosper without Nuclear Energy or Coal. Duke University Press. Durham, NC.
Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST). 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs – A Workshop Report. The National Academies Press.
Bozell, Joseph J. 2008. Feedstocks for the Future — Biorefinery Production of Chemicals from Renewable Carbon. Clean-Soil, Air, Water, vol. 36, no. 8, pp: 641 — 647.
Bozell, Joseph J; Patel, Martin K. 2004. Feedstocks for the future: Renewables for the production of chemicals and materials. ACS symposium series: 921. National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Anaheim, California. [Online]. March, Available at: http://www.abiosus.org/docs/8_ACSSympSer921.pdf [accessed 20 April 2009]
Clark, James H; Macquarrie, Duncan J. 2002. Handbook of green chemistry and technology. Wiley-Blackwell.
Graziani, Mauro; Fornasiero, Paolo. 2007. Renewable resources and renewable energy: a global challenge. CRC Press.
Larson, Ben; Wentworth, Marchant. 2006. How Biomass Energy Works: UCS Fact sheet. Union of concerned scientist’s. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_energy/how_biomass_energy_works_factsheet.pdf [accessed 20 April 2009]
Lee, Hyunok. et al. 1994. Increased Industrial Uses of Agricultural Commodities: Policy, Trade and Ethanol. Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 12, no. 3, pp: 22-34.
Lempert, Robert J. et al. 2003. Next Generation Environmental Technologies: Benefits and Barriers. Rand: Santa Monica, CA.
McFarlane, Joanna. 2006. Survey of Alternative Feedstocks for the Chemical Industry-Draft. [Online]. September, Available at:
http://vision2020.chemicals.govtools.us/alternative%20feedstocks%20white%20paper.pdf [accessed 20 April 2009]
Milne, Thomas A; Elam, Carolyn C; Evans, Robert J. 2001. Hydrogen from Biomass: State of the Art and Research Challenges. A Report for the International Energy Agency.
Agreement on the Production and Utilization of Hydrogen Task 16, Hydrogen from Carbon-Containing Materials. [Online]. Available at: http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/792221-p8YtTN/native/792221.pdf [accessed 28 April 2009]
N.A. n. d. What Are Next Generation Environmental Technologies?
National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Grand Challenges for Sustainability in the Chemical Industry. 2005. Sustainability in the Chemical Industry: Grand Challenges and Research Needs- A Workshop Report. National Academies Press.
Palsson, B. O, et al. 1981. Biomass as a Source of Chemical Feedstocks: An Economic Evaluation. Science, 31 July, vol. 213, no. 4507, pp. 513 — 517.
Union of concerned scientist’s. 2009 How Biomass Energy Works. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/technology_and_impacts/energy_technologies/how-biomass-energy-works.html#_edn1 [accessed 20 April 2009]
Ridker, Ronald G; Watson, William D. 1980. To Choose a Future: Resource and Environmental Consequences of Alternative Growth Paths: Resources for the Future. Baltimore.