national symbols used in marketing products, sometimes to evoke a feeling of viewpoint, sometimes to add credibility to the project, and sometimes to actually encourage the consumer to purchase based on the symbol. The American Flag, for instance, is used in marketing to prove that something is American made or that purchasing it will help America; it can also be used in certain political campaigns to evoke the feeling of patriotism and therefore the desire to use that particular product to be patriotic. The American Eagle is often used in the same way — to purchase minted coins, stamps, or as a symbol of freedom and individualism. Flags or strategic positioning of symbols (Mexican sombrero, Irish flag or Leprechaun, etc.) help consumers identify the nation with the brand.
DP 5-2 — Enculturation is a learning process in which an individual learns the values and behaviors required of them to belong to that group. Acculturation is a process in which cultural and psychological changes occur when one culture meets another — the interaction between cultures (e.g. Immigrants becoming Americanized). Socialization is also a process, but more lengthy (lifelong) in which norms, customs, and cultural identity are disseminated throughout that culture or society. These are important to marketers so that one can adequately address the particular culture and place the targeted group might be for the individual product or service — to make the strategic and tactical marketing plans more successful.
DP 5-3 — Subcultures are a group of people within a culture that tends to differentiate them from the larger culture. For example, the Goth culture is still part of the larger country culture, but has similarities to Goth cultures in other countries. This is important to consumers because it not only allows consumers to have a way to purchase and participate in the subculture (often ethnic food or clothing), without adopting that culture’s norms and values. It is important to marketers so that one knows the proper marketing and advertising tools to use for that particular subculture.
CS 5-1 — Campina, as the market leader for milk-based products in Holland, Germany and Belgium, conducts research on consumer behavior in the EU and beyond to determine where to fit Campina’s products. Foremost among these behavioral models to research would be purchasing patterns and behaviors on certain products: consumption of cheese, yogurt; flavor choices and preferences; price point valuation studies. In addition, shopping pattern studies would show where these consumers went to shop (basic grocery stores, small markets, gourmet shops, etc.). Psychographically, the company needs a portrait of a typical customer within other countries towards which they may wish to market. For instance, Campina may find that Switzerland has a demographic base that would respond favorably to Dutch cheese imports, and perhaps find gourmet cheese shops that would carry certain products. This would help encourage new customers and allow Campina to move throughout the EU.
CS 5-2 — For Campina to produce new products, one of the easiest ways would be to formulate a two part study: competitive and focus group. In the competitive analysis, Campina would find all the products in the marketplace that are milk-based, do a robust competitive analysis on them, and then use them to begin to form a consumer focus group study. Getting various individuals together, cross-tabulating them using the initial data to determine some sample products (they might be flavors, flavor combinations, new cheeses, products for children, etc.). Once the initial findings are done, the Campina lab could create prototypes of these products for additional focus group and taste tests from a variety of consumers. If the company had the money and the time, they might even do a sample run and distribute to a certain demographic area in a certain city and then follow up with a survey.