International Business

To some extent, management can be defined as the harmonization of science, art, practice and implementation. Management takes into account knowledge and skills. On one hand, the knowledge aspect of management can be learned. On the other hand, the skills aspect of management encompasses the internalization and transferal of management knowledge, which necessitates not only time resources, but also incessant practice. Skills employed by managers are in connection with organizational efficiency and have a significant influence on performance (Ping et al., 2012). In everyday practical life, managers ought to lay emphasis on the role of management skills in advancing the performance of organizations and businesses. Research has indicated that the lack of management skills is one of the major reasons that lead small and medium sized companies into bankruptcy. Therefore, this implies that organizations ought to focus and strengthen their management skills (Pang et al., 2012). From time immemorial, the Chinese have had different principles in their social order, which made their style of management to be completely dissimilar compared to that of the Western world. This research paper will concentrate on examining China and more so place emphasis on the management skills in China. This country was specifically chosen owing to its distinctive and dissimilar style of organizational and business management from that of the Western world. The paper will encompass a literature review of the different management aspects in China and consider the similarities and differences obtained.

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About China

In the present day, at the starting phases of the 21st century, there is a new economic revolution in motion. China, at one point in time, one of the paramount trading nations in the globe, has come out from its stagnation and is at this day and age the fastest growing economy in the world (Institute of Leadership & Management, 2012). In the past two to three decades, the economy of China has rapidly emerged and grown. In accordance to the World Bank, this country is set to become the biggest and leading economy in the globe by the end of the year. Therefore, China has enticed the consideration of the world on different aspects, and in this case management of the companies within the nation (Chunsheng, 2014). In recent periods, a lot of emphasis has been placed on the different kinds of management that are perceived in the United States contrasted to that in China.

China might seem to be an implausible and unconvincing source of renewed management thinking and philosophy. To start with, its state-owned organizations are, on the whole, delimited giants that are carrying out trial with management practices initiated in the Western world. More so, China has yet to develop and establish a world-class corporation, such as GE or Samsung, and freestanding from the nation, a great deal of its businesspeople, better acknowledged for building up wealth than for . However, despite these aspects, China offers more management lessons in the present day compared to most other nations in the world (Hout and Michael, 2014).

Unquestionable, the best private corporations in China are yet to come up with revolutionary far-reaching new management methods, in the way Toyota and other Japanese corporations did five decades ago with regards to practices, such as total quality management, continuous improvement, and (Hout and Michael, 2014). In its place, Chinese corporations at the present moment, teach organizations’ contemporary essentials. These include: receptiveness, creativeness, flexibility, and speed. In particular, these capabilities give them a vital competitive edge. For instance, statistics indicate that China’s companies generate about fourteen percent higher returns on average (Hout and Michael, 2014).

Management Skills in China

A great deal of contemporary management theories have been invented and initiated in the Western societies and are not at all times pertinent to the Asian economies. Nonetheless, management skills might be exemptions. Skills employed and utilized by managers have to do with enterprise effectiveness and have a weighty influence on management and organizational performance (Analoui, 2000). According to Ping et al. (2012), irrespective of the level of management, one of the significant management skills in China is the technical skill, with human skill being subsequent and lastly the conceptual skill. To start with, the advancement of a manager from the general workforce to a management position may be as a result of effective accomplishment of basic work. Technical skills are necessary for basic work. Devoid of this skill, managers cannot undertake several tasks in an effective manner (Clem and Mujitaba, 2010).

Secondly, technical skill might be in connection with the responses from the managers themselves, since individuals are culturally motivated on becoming proficient at each aspect of their jobs and are anticipated to be specialists in it. In the research study by Ping et al. (2012), the survey undertaken placed emphasis on small and midsize enterprises, which have a deficiency in established management capability and skills. Majority of the business managers are fixated on the affairs of the business, and focus on particular technical issues. Another aspect is that the distinctive philosophy of guanxi, which is the connection amid several members of a group, ensures that managers concentrate on the advancement and growth of relational connections. Therefore, human skill occupies an important position in management skills. In addition, according to Ping et al. (2012), the Chinese structure of believing that a good sage can grow into an official and the succeeding selection method might also aid in elucidating why the conceptual skill of high-ranking managers is not very great.

One of the major management skills that is of top priority in China is knowledge, wisdom and learning, and assuming accountability. In particular, wisdom is deemed to be significant in the Chinese culture and society at large. For instance, the past world expo that took place in Shanghai indicated that some of the important management skills included the incessant determinations for self-improvement, being harmonious linked with divergence. This is different from the United States, where conceptions of wisdom have a tendency of being concentrated on content and not the practice. Team-working skills are other management skills that are of great significance in China. The distinction of team work may not astonish those cognizant of China’s past prominence on public and the collective (Institute of Leadership & Management, 2012).

According to the Institute of Leadership & Management (2012), the perception of Chinese management continues to be fixated in the past. This is for the reason that China is still perceived by most as a society, whose financial, economic, and management string suit lies on low costs, lengthy working hours and tough management. However, this is not the case. Research undertaken by the Institute of Leadership & Management (2012) is indicative that China is beginning to attain a distinct and extremely effective management culture. One that is refined, very viable, pioneering and motivated. This is owing to the management skills within the corporations in the nation.

With reference to management skills, top leaders and executives in China are well-known and skilled in controlling corporations from the top. However, one aspect that is not recognized is how much these managers decentralize. This enables them to react to shifts and variations in the market in a rapid manner and in turn have the capacity to generate new business lines. In China, one of the management skills necessitated is the ability to constantly adapt to changes. This encompasses being up-to-date, with not only the occurrences in the market, but also with regard to the dissimilarities in the development of every province in China and the authority and supremacy of the local officials (Hout and Michael, 2014). Another management skill that is perceived in China is the emphasis on autonomy and accountability. Taking into account that the aforementioned dissimilarities can be austere, Chinese managers develop structures that hand business departments, virtually complete autonomy. According to Hout and Michael (2014), a good example is Midea, which is ranked second in the home appliances manufacturing industry. The company manufactures all and sundry, ranging from water heaters, to air conditioners to microwaves. However, each of these product lines function as autonomous business instead of being incorporated as a matrix organizational structure. Every manager is in charge of every product line and is expected to have autonomy and accountability skills as he or she is responsible for a major product line in the company (Hout and Michael, 2014).


Several researchers have studied and examined the management skills deemed necessary for effective management. Some of the significant management skills in China include technical skills, conceptual skills and also human skills. It is imperative to note that in Chinese organization, managers in different levels are dedicated and devoted to operating with diverse natures and responsibilities, and necessitate different management skills. For instance, high ranking managers make the decision which instigates the direction in which the organization will take. Therefore, there is need for conceptual skills as they play an important part in the performance of the organization. In general, the work for low-level managers is to finish the task allotted by superiors; therefore, the technical skills may be the most significant. Human skills are indispensable for effective communication, inspiration, and ability and are significant in all organizational levels. These management skills are considered to be significant as a lack of these skills can be the largest obstacles and hindrances to the growth of an organization (Ping et al., 2012).

There are a number of things that I would expect to be similar as well as different in China compared to what is indicated in the research papers. One of the similarities would be human skills. Human skills are aspects that are taught and drilled into the Chinese people right from an early age. In addition, this can be perceived from the different styles of management that China implements compared to the Western world. For instance, as for western cultures, during business the main factor to consider is penning the signatures and completing transactions in a business deal. However, in the Chinese culture this is not the case at all. In this culture, what is imperative is the bond or relationship that is cultivated during the business in the hope and view that such association will be a long lasting and healthy one in the forthcoming (Shi Jintao, 2004).

On the other hand, there are a number of dissimilarities that I except from what is indicated in the research papers. This is pertaining to the aspect of autonomy within the organizations in China. One of the major aspects that China is well renowned for is its exceeding level and extent of centralization. Therefore, it would be quite difficult to conceive the notion of having autonomous product lines from the general business operation of the organization. For the most part, I would anticipate a different organizational structure with one that is either centralized or a matrix organizational culture (Hout and Michael, 2014).

In conclusion, according to Bai and Enderwick (2003), as China continues to grow and possibly becomes the biggest economy in the world, there will be a great need of ensuring that these management skills are not overlooked and disregarded. In order to constantly improve and grow, the nation requires managers, if enterprises across the nation have to keep on improving their management skills. More so, they ought to constantly enhance their inventiveness, flexibility to adapt to market changes, increase their speed and also advance their receptiveness (Mujitaba, 2010).


There are various aspects that I have learnt in doing this paper regarding China as a country and management skills. To start with, the worldwide poise of economic power is shifting. The managers in China are instituting the management context for China as a nation and are poised to implement the same for the rest of the globe. More so, it is imperative for managers in the United States and Europe to take note of these aspects. This is largely owing to the good management skills of the Chinese managers, which are emerging to be dissimilar to those of the Western world and proving to be more effective. At the heart and core of the Chinese economic sensation are its managers, loads of officials, who are incessantly applying their management skills and knowledge to develop and enhance the performance of Chinese businesses (Institute of Leadership & Management, 2012).Another significant aspect that I have learnt is that, in the present day, Chinese corporations teach organizations’ contemporary essentials. These consist of receptiveness, creativeness, flexibility, and speed. In certain scenarios, these competences give them a vital competitive edge over corporations and managements in the Western world (Boyatzis, 1982).


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Bai, X., Enderwick, P. (2003). Economic Transition and Management Skills: The Case of China. Business Education and Emerging Market Economies: Trends and Prospects Conference. Retrieved 28 November 2015 from:

Boyatzis, R.E. (1982). The Competent Manager. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY

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