Human Resource Management:
Job analysis is the organized procedure of gathering information for identifying the skills, knowledge and abilities that are necessary to perform a certain job and determining the nature of that particular job. This emphasis on the required knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics has been the focus of both traditional and some existing job analyses. Strategic job analysis involves the integration of strategic issues that may impact jobs in the future into the job analysis. Therefore, strategic job analysis involves the organized process of collecting information to determine the necessary skills, knowledge, abilities and other characteristics for a specific job with a future-oriented approach. One of the major advantages of strategic job analysis is that its implementation enables human resource practitioners and managers to anticipate and predict future organizational needs (Pynes, 2009).
Recruitment is the process of appealing to competent candidates to apply for an organization’s vacant positions. As an important concept in , recruitment must be linked with the mission of the organization and incorporate efforts to predict the organization’s future personnel needs. For an organization to have an effective recruitment plan, determining when and where to search for competent applicants is crucial. Recruitment is divided into two categories i.e. internal and external recruitment with internal recruitment involving the search of an organization’s existing staff to fill a vacancy. On the other hand, external recruitment is the search for competent applicants from outside the organization.
Performance management is the process of evaluating employees’ input towards the delivery of quality services by the organization. This component is used to help organizations in achieving their missions and to provide response regarding the ability of HRM functions to work in line with the organizational objectives. As a valuable component of HRM, performance management provides an organizational management with important information for making decisions concerning the improvement, retention and separation of employees.
In human resource management, strategic job analysis, recruitment and performance management are strongly connected. Through strategic job analysis, an organization’s human resource managers identify the required knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics for each position and the expected future changes of the job to meet changing demands. Actually, it’s through strategic job analysis that an organization identifies the skills of the people it recruits and hires. On the other hand, strategic job analysis also determines the tasks and responsibilities that employees perform in their jobs which help in developing areas of accountability and evaluation standards.
Each of these three components of human resource management has various strategies which enables an organization to accomplish it goals. For strategic job analysis, the most important human resource strategy is designing a job analysis program that helps in accomplishing the reasons and purpose for data collection. Designing such a program that achieves both of these goals is critical in strategic job analysis since different purposes necessitate the different information and designs. The most important human resource strategy for recruitment is the development of a policy on recruitment and retention as well as procedures that improves this policy (Richardson, n.d.). These systems that help in improving the recruitment and retention policy incorporate evaluation procedures that are essential in identifying the existing and future human resource needs of the organization.
For performance management, there are various strategies that have been employed by various organizations including conventional appraisals and employee self-evaluations. However, the most important strategy is the written evaluation which contains a list of objectives that employees should accomplish within a given period of time. This strategic also contains means with which the management provides specific and helpful response to employees which they can use as the basis for improvement (Wakeling, 2010).
The application of these HRM concepts in the public and because of the divergent strategies that are employed by organizations in these two sectors. In conducting strategic job analyses, public sector organizations usually employ experts to help in data collection while private sector organizations use observations. While organizations in the public sector often look at their existing employees first to fill vacant positions, the private usually conducts external recruitment. Performance management in the public sector is widely used to validate personnel decisions while it’s used for training and development in the private sector.
Pynes, J.E. (2009). Human resources management for public and nonprofit organizations: A
strategic approach (3rd ed.). San Francisco, California: Jossey-Bass.
Richardson, M.A. (n.d.). Recruitment Strategies: Managing/Effecting the Recruitment Process.
Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan021814.pdf
Wakeling, B. (2010, July 11). Performance Appraisal Strategies. Retrieved June 24, 2011, from http://www.ehow..html