Difficult to Formulate Precise Laws in the Field of Social Science? Explain with Examples.
The difficulty in formulating precise laws arises from the variance of the different social science knowledge. It is difficult to reach a consensus between the different social sciences identified in the broad categories of sociology, history, anthropology, geography, political science, economics, and psychology. This is because the social science field is extraordinarily broad, with each science even broader, with various parts of the sciences not within the realm of true social sciences. Moreover, the social sciences are interrelated causing a difficulty in the definition and categorization as they are also related to the humanities and naturals sciences. For example, to understand history requires the understanding of geography, while to understand economics requires an understanding of psychology. The other difficulty in presenting a precise and uniform set of laws to define the social science field is the fact that social scientists do not agree on what is done or is to be done (Hunt & Colander, 2010). This means that, in the field of social sciences, there is a lack of consensuses among social scientists. This makes it difficult for them to reach an agreement on a uniform and precise law that will define, structure, and form a basis.
This difference is in the manner in which social scientists approach a problem. According to Hunt & Colander (2010) even when two social scientists consider the same issue, their training leads them to focus on different aspects of the issue. For this reason, geographers will permanently focus on spatial and space relativities, political scientists on the decision-making dynamics, and economists on market incentives. The lack of unifying law arises from the fact that, over the centuries, social scientists and their disciplines broke up. The break up is associated with the increase and accumulation of knowledge that lead to a need for different people to deal with different aspects of knowledge. Therefore, the unified social sciences in the age of Socrates is now a multi-disciplinary field that is continuously evolving and calling for increased specialization. For example, the creation of new emerging fields likes economic psychology, and sociopolitical anthropology (Hunt & Colander, 2010). Therefore, though the social sciences are all interconnected and interrelated, it is the evolution and differences that are causing a lack of a single precise law to define the field
2. What was the Industrial Revolution? What are some of the Reasons it was Successful in the United States?
There are different definitions of the industrial revolution due to the different social, economic, and political views. To the economists, the industrial revolution was the market of economic change and an era marked by growth in productivity that was the product of technical changes, which swept through Britain and progressed to America in the 18th century. The economists identify that the technical advancements of the era led to sustained growth and accelerated growth whose effects were in America’s social, economic, and political life even in the 19th century.
To the social sciences, the industrial revolution was the change in the economic transactions between different people, which led to the creation of competitive, formal, and impersonal markets for goods and production aspect. The social scientist finds that the industrial revolution led to the emergence of the modern market economy that improved production and the distribution of wealth in the society (Hunt & Colander, 2010). In the process, the society benefited from the advances from this revolution as railroads, mills, firms, and large retail store cropped up. The organization of workers into structured organizations and industries led to the modern structured hierarchy that is characteristic of the modern social structure. Moreover, the industrial revolution led to the growth of the economy and saw the creation of large cities and city dwellings. Due to the growth and advancement in agricultural sectors like the cotton industry, and commercialization of sectors like craftsmen, tanners, blacksmiths, shoemakers, tailors, millers, and bakers (Hunt & Colander, 2010). This led many farmers to turn to working in the industrial sector and move to the city sprawling slums for factory workers were conditions and sanitation was poor. Therefore, revolution did bring about social progress, but saw the gap between the rich and poor increase as the society increasingly became stratified along socio-economic classes. The classes entailed the rich controlling the industry and trade, with the poor making up the factory and industrial worker. However, the revolution did give America the technical tools and know how required to conquer and settle in North America and establish a vibrant society. It led to useful innovations like gas lighting of streets and homes, and the distillation process.
3. Explain some of the contributions that Sigmund Freud made to the understanding of human personality.
Sigmund Freud is an crucial theorist in the modern era since he made revolutionary contributions to an understanding of the human mind and psyche. He led to the discussion of human personality using the tenets of the psychosexual development, unconscious mind, and the psycho-dynamics, which are a crucial foundation for the psychoanalysis theory to this day (Hunt & Colander, 2010). His psychosexual theory was like the Darwin’s theory that human beings are similar to animals with the basic need to feed, breathe, and eliminate bodily waste. In order, for a person to survive there was a need to reproduce to preserve the human race. Freud believed that the human was endowed with sexual instincts purposely for the preservation of the species. Later, Freud led to the idea that when these natural instincts were let to run freely, or when a person gave in to them, then human aggression occurred. To Freud this human aggression is a natural instinct that has the potential to tear apart the fabric of the society or the family unit (Hunt & Colander, 2010). Therefore, Freud led to the understanding that for human beings to live in harmony and order in the society there is a need to control primitive sexual and aggressive impulses. Therefore, unlike animals human beings have the choice to channel their aggressive and sexual instincts into socially appropriate ways in order to live in a harmonious family and society. Freud led the society to an understanding that sexual and aggression touching were social unacceptable, unless they occurred in socially acceptable contexts like marital bed and football field.
His theory was that there was a dynamic underlying struggle in the human psyche or mind occurring from the person’s unconsciousness. This was an significant contribution to the understanding of human personality for Freud led the discussion on how the human mind accomplishes tasks like balancing conflicting demands like social acceptability and instinct (Hunt & Colander, 2010). This theory is exceedingly complex, but understanding of human personality in this field is on four dimensions, these are defense mechanisms, personality structures, stages of psychosexual development, and consciousness. Under the personality structures, Freud proposes that the personality is the representation of three mental entities identified as the ego, id, and superego. Therefore, the ability of a person to balance these entities leads to their ability to function in life and determines their behavior (Hunt & Colander, 2010). Therefore, a person that seeks to fulfill their id operates on the pleasure principle and is by instincts. The person who follows their ego operates on the reality principle, and is operating in a world where they take into account what is socially acceptable and practical. The person who seeks to satisfy their superego operates in their moral convictions, and seeks to meet their personal belief of what is right and wrong.
4. Why is the Position of the Black Minority different from that of any other minority group? Explain using examples.
Blacks in the U.S. have a lower position and a different position from other minority groups due to social classification, deep-rooted and traditional definitions of racial and ethnicity. This is because in America minority groups are determined by the differences in ethnic and racial characteristics that lead to unequal distribution of power, resources, prestige, and worth (Hunt & Colander, 2010). In this society, the unequal power of the majority group entails the possession of property, technology, education, and economic resources, setting this group above the rest. Blacks form part of the minority groups that receive unequal rights, but are lower than other minority groups due to historical inequality of rights as blacks were mainly in the slavery institution, causing their social isolation for an extraordinarily long period (Hunt & Colander, 2010). Moreover, Blacks are physically and culturally varied from others as they have darker complexions unlike other minority groups that are lighter and closer to the white majority group. Other minority groups arrived as workers and migrants setting their social class above that of blacks. The other reason for the differences between Blacks and other minority groups is their social classification, which is currently under the influence of education, professional and career advancement, and economic power. In this, many black fail to graduate from high school, do not advance to higher education, and hence fail to reach the mainstream professions (Hunt & Colander, 2010). Moreover, the difference is also associated with built up ego of inferiority, the Black community has learnt to feel and treat itself as an inferior group. Therefore, they behave and believe they have been singled out as objects of social, political, and economic discrimination.
Hunt, Elgin F., and Colander, David C. (2010). “Social Science an Introduction to the Study of Society.” 14th Edition. Allyn and Bacon Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-0-205-70271-8.