Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources

NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) offers the necessary structure for coordination, synchronization and integration of activities originating from different pertinent statutes, presidential directives and national strategies for the creation of a combined countrywide approach for the implementation of the protection mission of CIKR (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). The continuity and protection of CIKR is fundamental for national security, safety, vitality, lifestyle and public health. Critical infrastructure can be understood as the systems, networks and assets, virtual or physical (Fisher & Norman 2010). Critical infrastructure is quite fundamental to a nation to the extent that their destruction or incapacitation may cause a devastating impact on public health, national security, safety, or a combination of all (Moteff & Parfomak 2004). Critical infrastructure sectors include:

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Food and Agriculture: This sector can be understood as the national animals, feeds, and as well as the fertilizer, seeds and farm input supply chain alongside other such like materials. It also entails the supply chain for food components available in the . It comprises of production, processing and packing, storage, distribution, retail, home consumption, restaurants, and food services for institutions (Fisher & Norman 2010).

Finance and Banking: The sector entails institutions entitled for the provision of services such as deposits, credit, liquidity products, payment systems, consumer credit, products for risk transfer such as insurance, and investment products (Moteff & Parfomak 2004).

Chemical: The sector can be apportioned into 5 principle segments that are dependent on the final product. The final product may be the basic chemicals, agricultural chemicals, consumer products, pharmaceuticals, and specialty chemicals (Fisher & Norman 2010).

Commercial facilities: The sector is made up of 8 subsectors including: Real estate, Media and entertainment, outdoor events, lodging, resorts, sports leagues, public assembly, and retail. Public assembly entails convention centers, museums, zoos, aquariums, arenas and stadiums. Sports league entail sports federations, and professional sporting leagues. Lodgings entail conference centers, motels and hotels. Outdoor events include parades, campgrounds, fairs, amusement parks and theme parks (Moteff & Parfomak 2004).

Communications: The sector is made up of extensive communication infrastructure including cable, satellite, broadcasting, wire and wireless infrastructure, and other services like cable television, internet and information services (Moteff & Parfomak 2004).

Critical manufacturing: The sector entails manufacturers who are skilled in distribution, production and designing of products which other sectors do not cover. They include primary metal processing and production (Steel mills, ferroalloy, iron, aluminum, and alumina), machinery, electrical equipment, machinery (such as power transmission, turbines, and engines), aerospace products, rolling stock, railroad etc. (Fisher & Norman 2010).

Dams: The sector is characterized by networks, systems, functions and assets associated with navigation locks, hurricane barriers, dam projects, impoundments for mine tailings, and other water control and retention facilities (Moteff & Parfomak 2004). Dams offer social, environmental and economic benefits such as hydroelectric power production, water supply, navigation, waste management, recreation, flood control and wildlife habitation.

Defense industrial center: The sector has different segments, sub segments and supplies that entail platforms for weapon systems, expendables and components (Fisher & Norman, 2010). The primary segments entail aircrafts, missiles, combat vehicles, troop support, ammunition, electronics, shipbuilding etc. (Moteff, 2005).

Emergency service: This is a recovery and response system that makes up the first prevention and defense line for a nation. It helps in the reduction of detrimental consequences that might occur from terrorist activities or accidents (O’Rourke, 2007). The personnel serving in the sector have special training. The redundant systems, plans, pacts and agreements offer security and safety in the entire nation through first responders (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). The first responders include local, private, tribal and federal partners. The disciplines covered in emergency service include emergency management, hazardous material, fire, medical emergency services, bomb squads, tactical operations, rescue and search missions etc. (Fisher & Norman 2010).

Energy: Energy infrastructure comprises of three segments that are interrelated i.e. natural gas, petroleum and electricity. An excess of 80% of the national energy sources come from private players (Moteff & Parfomak 2004). The dependence on on and interdependency of the power sectors. All other sectors depend on the energy sector in some way (Fisher & Norman, 2010).

Government facilities: The sector entails many buildings that are either leased or owned by the state, federal, local, tribal, or territorial governments locally or overseas (Fisher & Norman 2010). Most government facilities are accessible by individuals either for commercial, recreational, commercial or business purposes. Government facilities that are not accessible to outsiders contain confidential information, sensitive equipment, processes and materials. They may be military installations, national laboratories, courthouse embassies etc. (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004).

Public health and healthcare: The sector is made up of local and state health departments, health clinics, hospitals, mental facilities, laboratories, pharmaceuticals, mortuaries, nursing homes etc. (Moteff, 2005).

Information technology: This sector is made up of distributed and virtual functions that offer IT services and products such as software, hardware and services (Fisher & Norman, 2010).

National Icons and Monuments: The sector comprises of different assets situated in various U.S. territories. The icons and monuments are either historic landmarks, or listed in the historic sites national register (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004). They may include physical structures or monuments.

Nuclear waste, materials and reactors: This sector is made up of nuclear power stations, testing and research without nuclear power reactors and nuclear materials applied for academic, industrial and medical settings, fuel fabricator facilities, storage, disposal, and transportation systems (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004).

Shipping and postal: More than , products and messages are channeled through this sector. Shipping and postal activity focuses on medium and small packages unlike cargo operation which focuses on large cargo (O’Rourke, 2007).

Transportation systems: The sector is made up of all transportation modes including mass transit, maritime, aviation, pipeline, freight rail and highways. It is an open and vast interdependent network used for moving tons and millions of goods and passengers (Moteff & Parfomak, 2004).

Water: The sector entails waste water, drinking water systems, facilities and utilities (Fisher & Norman 2010)






Fisher, R., & Norman, M. (2010). Developing measurement indices to enhance protection and resilience of critical infrastructure and key resources. Journal of business continuity & emergency planning, 4(3), 191-206.

Moteff, J. (2005, February). Risk management and critical infrastructure protection: Assessing, integrating, and managing threats, vulnerabilities and consequences. Library of Congress Washington DC Congressional Research Service.

Moteff, J., & Parfomak, P. (2004, October). Critical infrastructure and key assets: definition and identification. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE.

O’Rourke, T. D. (2007). Critical infrastructure, interdependencies, and resilience. of Engineering-, 37(1), 22.