Community based Screening of type 2 diabetes mellitus
The diabetes menace in the US is rampant and a national concern for the health agencies particularly rearing the high rates of new diabetes cases that emerge each year. It is estimated that by 1958, only 1% of the American population were diabetic, this has tremendously shot up to the estimated 9.4% by 2015. This number includes 30.2 million adults of 18 years and over. Of even greater concern in this evaluation or screening process is that nearly a quarter of the individuals with this condition do not know that they have it (Murrel D., 2018). This informs the screening initiative with the sole aim of increasing the number of screened individuals, hence awareness of their diabetes status.
The screening is projected to have a long term effect of the participants knowing their predisposition to the cardiovascular complications since blood pressure measurement is an important predictor of cardiovascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes. This screening exercise will therefore take the form of blood pressure (BP) measurement among adults with no symptoms of type 2 diabetes mellitus or evidence of possible complications of diabetes. This is the baseline presumptive screening that will be done before a second tier of test is resorted to, depending on the results of the first test. From the results of the BP measurement, if the adult is found with BP > 135/80 mm Hg, whether it is treated or untreated, the individual will then be further screened for diabetes. The reason as to why the screening targets type 2diabetes is that statistics indicate 90 to 95% of the diabetes cases in the USA are type 2 diabetes (Sinnot S., et.al, 2017). This makes it the most likely diabetes type to be identified and most bothersome for the population. The screening seeks to have a positive impact to the community within which it will be conducted hence the choice of type 2 diabetes.
The screening will be community based and will be conducted in a community based activity where both the elderly and the young members of the community congregate. The purposes of the screening exercise if to both share critical information on diabetes as well as to sensitize members of the community on the possible links between diabetes and the cardiovascular heart diseases. It is noted that diabetes often occurs in people with hypertension, a factor that increases the risk of stroke and heart attack (Barhum L., 2017). It is also as screening that will be done at a basic level with the minimum medical appliances and provisions as can be easily carried to the field where other activities are taking place. This is to further educate the community that the screening of type two diabetes is not necessarily an intrusive and complex process. The screening will specifically target the Hispanic population since it is estimated that they account for one of the highest rates of diabetes, in California, where the screening will take place, it is estimated that 10.4% of the Hispanics therein are diabetic (Cordero M. Z., 2010). This is a population that would benefit from frequent seeing exercises as a continuous attempt to sensitize victims of DM and also help them initiate treatment and management of the condition as early as is possible.
The population targeted for this screening exercise is the adult, over 18 years old participants who will attend the annual sports festival of Southern California. This is an annual event that brings thousands of people from all age groups and races to interact in various sporting activities. The targeted Hispanic participants will be highly available, though the other races will not be barred from the screening exercise. The event will be the best platform to get the participants since the sports activates vary in age group categories, from the old to young school students, an indication that those participating in the activities are likely to be concerned with their health condition, and that is where the screening exercise comes in.
The exercise is aimed to be as simple and friendly as possible since it will be covering a general population who did not turn up for the screening but for the sporting activity. The team will set up a medical stop point under a tent where the volunteer participants will be screened for the possible diabetes. At the tent, there will be medics who will be conducting BP measurement as a precursor to possible type 2diabetes. There will be at least three tables each with two client chairs and the medics chair. There will also be signage leading to the tent on the sideline of the field where they sporting activities will be taking place. There will also be screening ambassadors who will be in identical uniforms with the medics, marshaling the participants to the medical tent for screening.
Once at the tent, the participants will be informed of the possible development of type 2 diabetes and how this could be a precursor to more serious conditions such as the cardiovascular heart diseases, hence the need to screen. The screening process will only take place with both the verbal and written consent of the participants and it will be non-intrusive in nature.
The simple procedure will involve BP measurement of the participant. If the BP determined to be > 135/80 mm Hg, whether it is treated or untreated, the individual will then be further screened for diabetes. However, this referral will only take place after a second reading is taken within a time interval of five minutes from the first reading. Upon referral for the specific diabetic test, the participant will be taken through the blood sample draw and all the appropriate precautions taken as required in the medical laboratory.
If the participant BP is below the above prescribed levels, the details will nevertheless be recorded, though no further investigations will be done on the patient. However, for the benefit of the community, short and quick lessons on diabetes, how to avoid it through dietary and active lifestyle will be taught to each participant. Brochures containing essential medical information on type 2 diabetes will also be given out to the participants.
Â· Screening of both school going and adult population.
Â· Identification of new diabetic cases.
Â· Sensitization of the population of ease of diabetes screening
Â· Information sharing on effects of diabetes and how to manage it.
The screening will be conducted at annual festival for southern California festival. The venue is often the main high school grounds with vast fields and sporting amenities.
Unit cost ($)
Tent, chairs and table higher
The challenge of diabetes cannot be overemphasized; indeed, it is the single medical condition that has come out to be a bother to the old and the young. There is need to have a multi-pronged approach to curbing the effects of the medical condition. Frequent screening is one of the best approaches to sensitizing people on their medical conditions regarding type two diabetes. With such screening at the sporting events, the community members get the chance to easily get screened at their spare time and hence take the necessary steps of either avoiding the disease or managing the condition.
Cordero M. Z., (2010). Overview of type 2 diabetes in Hispanic Americans. Retrieved September 13, 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3019531/
Murrel D., (2018). Statistics and facts about type 2 diabetes. Retrieved September 13, 2018 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318472.php
Sinnot S., et.al, (2017). Estimating the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes using population level pharmacy claims data: a cross-sectional study. Retrieved September 14, 2018 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5253438/
Barhum L., (2017). How are diabetes and hypertension linked? Retrieved September 14, 2018 from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317220.php