Cardiovascular System Disorder Case Study
System Disorder Case Study
Hypertension is a primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Causes of hypertension are largely unknown or disputable. The application of other molecular biologic tools is likely to serve through better delineation of the basic mechanisms of primary hypertension. Other secondary causes account for 10% of hypertension. The ingredients include renal disorders like renin-producing tumors, renal renovascular disease, sodium retention, and primary parenchymal disease. Endocrinologic disturbances resulting in hypertension are inclusive of exogenous hormones, carcinoid, adrenal disorders, and thyroid disease (Lilly, 2012). Other causes include aortic coarctation, pregnancy complications (pre-eclampsia), acute stress, neurologic causes, alcohol ingestion, increased intravascular volume, nicotine use, and the drug use such as tacrolimus or cyclosporine.
The lymphatic and cardiovascular systems’ diseases affect various systems due to their infectious agents that are easily disseminated by lymph and blood. Although blood remains sterile, moderate numbers of microorganisms are not harmful (Vlodaver, Wilson & Garry, 2012). While microorganisms make way into bloodstreams especially around wounds or other infections such as bacteremia, brief and asymptomatic periods cause bacteria circulate in human blood without multiplying.
Immune defenses eliminate the microorganisms by default. In case the defenses of blood and lymph system fail, microorganisms undergo rapid multiplication that results in septicemia and blood poisoning. Bacteria are disseminated to other organs and tissues. Symptoms of septicemia include shock, fever, and red streaks resulting from inflamed lymphatic vessels under the skin of an infected site. In other times, such red streaks are found within lymph nodes. The lymphocytes focus on stopping the invasion of the microorganisms. Persons suffering from the septicemia disease exhibit life-threatening septic shock symptoms. Small vessels and arteries become constricted and may result in collapse and decrease in peripheral blood circulation (Labarthe, 2011). Further, the peripheral tissues are also oxygen-starved. Persons developing rapid heartbeat and breathing may face drops in blood pressure leading to mental confusion.
Justus is 67 years old and suffers from primary hypertension. Lately, he has been complaining of headaches, altered vision, and anxiety. After making an appointment with a doctor for evaluation, it was detected that he had hypertensive retinopathy since his eyes were not very normal. The doctor also carried out some evaluation as he sought to find out if he had secondary hypertension. For effective treatment and management, the impacts of the persistent elevation of BP on organs coupled with estimates of overall risk were developed under premature CVD. It is always important to have regular physical examination if the disease is to be managed appropriately. Justus pointed out that he had been examined for the same disorder but he was told that he did not have it. This shows that undetected high blood pressure and misleading cases of improper BP measurement may result in deaths. Symptoms such as lifestyle habits, organ dysfunction, diet, and other psychosocial factors must be monitored continuously (Montezano & Touyz, 2012).
For patients with uncomplicated hypertension like Justus, low cost and risk metabolic complications such as hyperuricemia, hypokalemia, and lipid abnormalities may be important identifying factors of hypertension. This starts with low thiazide diuretic doses such as hydrochlorothiazide of between 12.5 and 25 mg. If the low-dose thiazide monotherapy are ineffective, ?-blocker and calcium channel blocker are sequentially substituted (Vlodaver, Wilson & Garry, 2012). Calcium channel blockers are likely to have more effectiveness where patients have trouble breathing. Reports suggest that the calcium channel blockers increase the myocardial infarction risks for hypertensive patients without confirming the long-acting dihydropyridines (Lilly, 2012). However, the preliminary evidence shows that patients with unresponsive behavior to diuretic responses of calcium channel blockers may use ?-blockers as a second-line preferred agent.
Although this did not happen to Justus, the management of hypertensive patients who undergo surgery presents unique critical points as they have increased risks for perioperative mortalities. Antihypertensive therapy administration reduces the risks of having patients taking medications before surgery. This should be replaced with continued therapy onto surgery. The intravenous preparations have appropriated use of surgery and the postoperative periods where patients are nothing-by-mouth orders. For Justus, the physical examination goals included looking for end-organ damage signs (such as retinopathy). This is supported by finding evidence for secondary hypertension causes. For this reason, peripheral pulses are palpated while abdomen is auscultated for the renal artery bruit indicating renovascular hypertension (Montezano & Touyz, 2012).
In Justus’ case, the presence of upper abdominal diastolic bruits localized towards a single side becomes highly suggestive of renal artery stenosis. Physical examination included endoscopic assessments. The outcomes were based on increased trial numbers suggesting that similar BP control levels present antihypertensive drugs with similar cardiovascular protection degrees (Vlodaver, Wilson & Garry, 2012). For instance, various major drug trials on antihypertensive showed little difference in terms of outcomes between the older (?-blockers and diuretics) and the newer (calcium channel blockers and ACEIs) antihypertensive drugs.
In a typical clinical setting, there are pointers towards the application of drugs associated for the prevention of the disorder. An example includes heart evaluations where patients suffering from hypertension (like Justus) benefit from enzyme inhibition that converts angiotensin with ramipril (Labarthe, 2011). As a result, patients with high risk CVD report great improvement. High risks are defined as vascular disease evidence (such as stroke, CHD, and peripheral vascular disease) and diabetes coupled with subsequent coronary risk factors. However, cardiovascular death, stroke, and myocardial infarction may occur in extreme cases. For the case of Justus, cardioprotective medications like ?-blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and aspirin were administered.
Labarthe, D. (2011). Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Global Challenge. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Lilly, L.S. (2012). Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Montezano, A.C. & Touyz, R.M. (2012). Reactive Oxygen Species and the Cardiovascular System. New York: Morgan & Claypool Publishers.
Vlodaver, Z., Wilson, R.F. & Garry, D.J. (2012). Coronary Heart Disease: Clinical, Pathological, Imaging, and Molecular Profiles. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.