Caloric and Energy Requirements
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Rangers or AMDRs were established from evidence levels of consumption, which either increase or decrease the risk of developing disease conditions (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). These disease conditions include coronary heart disease, obesity, diabetes and cancer. An AMDR refers to a range of food intakes aimed at reducing the risk of these disease conditions. At the same time, AMDR provides sufficient intakes of essential nutrients, which meet the body’s daily nutritional requirements for health and energy. In order to accomplish these goals, an average adult should obtain 45-65% carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10-35% from protein sources (Otten et al., USDA).
Greg, who is a 19-year-old basketball player, weighs 84.82 kilograms. He stands .96520 meters and has a body mass index or BMI of 22.5. Energy balance depends on intake from energy derived from food and drinks and the amount of energy used (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). Factors, like age, body composition, sex, and level of physical activity determine energy use and requirements. An excess or lack results in weight loss or gain. Estimated Energy Requirement or EER is the average dietary intake of energy, scientifically calculated for the maintenance of energy balance in a healthy adult, based on the said factors (Otten et al., USDA).
For his age, gender, and level of activity, the formula for Greg’s estimated energy requirement or EER is 662- (9.53 X age in years + physical activity level X 15.91 X weight in kilograms + 539.6 X height in meters. The total is 628,350.42. His BMI of 22.5 is within the normal range. The USDA does not set a recommended level for energy, as energy intakes above EER are likely to increase weight. But when energy intake is lower than energy needs, the body uses energy reserves to function, primarily from adipose tissues. An abnormally low BMI tends to decrease the capacity for work and voluntary physical activity as a whole. This is not the case with Greg.
These data are consistent with the requirements and recommendations of the United States Department of Agriculture.
An adult like Greg should devote an average of 60 minutes a day to moderately intense physical activity, such as walking or jogging and at an average distance of 3-4 miles per hour (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). Otherwise, he should spend shorter period of more vigorous activities, like basketball, which he is already doing, for 30 minutes. This activity has been helping maintain his normal BMI against all the mentioned factors.
The recommended dietary requirement for iron is at an average of 30-70% for athletes engaging in intense activities or sports on a regular basis, as in the case of Greg.
The first consideration in planning a specific person’s diet is to make sure that his daily intake meets at least his minimum nutrient needs (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). Assessing Greg’s intake first requires an input on his reported or observed usual intake according to his age, gender and physical activity level. Assessing the adequacy of his nutrient intake requires a statistical equation, which will yield a probability value. The specific evaluation done on Greg’s case should be carefully interpreted in combination with other factors, which can influence his nutritional status. These factors include anthrpometric data, biochemical measurements, eating patterns, habits and general lifestyle, and disease conditions, if any (Otten et al., USDA).
Planning his daily intake should consist of two steps (Otten et al., n.d.; USDA, n.d.). The first is setting appropriate nutrient goals while considering the factors, which affect his needs. The second is developing a diet plan that he can afford and will want to eat. The best way to plan an energy and calori-sufficient dietary plan for Greg is to base it on or consider the health level of his BMI (Otten et al., USDA). His BMI, being in the normal range, should only be maintained.
Otten, J. et al., editors (n.d). Dietary reference intakes: the essential guide to nutrient
Requirement. National Academy of Sciences: Institute of Medicine of the National
Academies. Retrieved on October 26, 2015 from http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11537.html
USDA (n.d.)., Dietary reference intakes: estimated average requirements. Food and Nutrition Board: United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved on October 26,
2015 from http://www.nia.usda.gov/fnic/DRI_Tables/recomended_intakes_individuals.pdf