Business Management Principles — Questions from PowerPoint Chapter

Described the major factors that have influenced the evolution of management thought.

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The major factors that have influenced the evolution of management thought are economic, social, political, technological, and global factors. Generally, economic factors relate to resource availability and distribution in society; social factors consist of culture and interpersonal issues; political factors relate to the effects of political institutions; technological factors relate to the ways that the evolution of hardware devices and systems affect business; and global factors consist of the ways that the evolution of a global market place affects the conduct of business and business practices.

Identify and describe the central focus of the following subfields of the classical perspective on management:

Scientific Management

Scientific management emphasizes the productivity of individual workers. Its original theorist was American Frederick Taylor and it had also been referred to as “Taylorism.” He studied the minute ways that task performance, tools, and operational processes could be optimized for maximum yield per man-hour of labor. It in supervisory relationships and relies on the transactional nature of employment to incentivize maximum performance by linking output to financial compensation for labor. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth also contributed to the evolution of the field by studying the effects of the mechanics of physical tasks and of working conditions on productivity.

Administrative Management

Administrative management emphasizes the management functions with organizations. Its original theorist was Frenchman Henri Fayol. His approach relies on the four fundamental management functions of planning, leading, organizing, and controlling that are widely used in business organizations. Fayol also of Management relating to the relationship between workers and supervisors, areas of managerial authority and responsibility, and compensation and motivation issues.

Bureaucratic Management

Bureaucratic management emphasizes the entire organization as a system. Its original theorist was Max Weber, a German. Weber’s approach relies on adherence to firmly-established rules, policies, and procedures, and on highly-regimented levels of authority and control. It recognizes the value of three different leadership authority and styles (traditional, charismatic, and rational/legal) and emphasizes a formal regimented chain of command structure.

3. What is the main contention of the contingency perspective of management?

The main contention of the contingency perspective of management is that there is not necessarily one “best” approach to management; instead, different situations or “contingencies” require different reliance on classical, behavioral, quantitative, and .

4. Describe the major behavioral perspective contributions of:

Follett — Ongoing cooperative coordination and communication are the keys to success. Effective management emphasizes coordinated direction and not coercion. Four principles of coordination are necessary for effectiveness in working groups: direct contact, coordination during first phase of efforts, comprehensiveness of coordination, and continuity of coordination.

Mayo — There are important human behavioral components to optimal productivity. Workers who believe they are noticed and appreciated perform better than workers who believe they are taken for granted and ignored.

McGregor — Management styles typically reflect either Theory X (that workers need to be controlled and managed because they are not inherently motivated and dislike working) or Theory Y (that workers are intrinsically motivated to achieve and can play a role in self-management).

Bernard — Executive management must function to promote coordination and communication among employees and to develop and promote organizational objectives that provide employee motivation. The ability of managers to maintain authority actually depends on the acceptance of that authority by subordinates.


Lewis, P.S., Goodman, S.H., Fandy, P.M., Michlitsch, J.F. (2007). Management:

Challenges for Tomorrow’s Leaders. Chapter 2 — Evolution of Management